The urinary calculi can be categorized into renal calculi, ureteral calculi, bladder calculi and urethral calculi according to the location of the calculi. Xue You-ren, director of the Urology Department in the Ren’ai Branch of Taipei City Hospital, expresses that urinary calculi often occur in the summer. The physician will tell you how to control the attack of urinary calculi. Calculi are the result of crystal accumulation. There are some calcium, carbonate and oxalate ions in the urine. When the concentrations of these ions are high, the crystallization will form naturally. How to reduce the chances of suffering from calculi? The simplest way is to drink more water to lower ion concentrations. The calculi smaller than 0.4cm can be discharged naturally within 2 weeks. Only 40-60% of calculi ranging between 0.4 and 0.6cm can be discharged naturally within 2 weeks. By contrast, less than 40% of calculi greater than 0.6cm can be discharged naturally within 2 weeks. Different kinds of pain may result from calculi at different locations. Patients with renal calculi experience unbearable pain of the lower back. The upper ureteral calculi can cause pains of ipsilateral scrotum (male) or labia majora (female), while the lower ureteral calculi can result in suprapubic pain. The symptoms of the urinary calculi also comprise hematuria and burning sensation during urination. Different treatment methods can be adopted according to the locations of the calculi. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy or retrograde kidney treatment can be used to treat renal calculi. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy or ureteroscopy lithotripsy can be adopted to treat ureteral calculi. The bladder calculi can be treated by endoscopic cystolithotripsy. And the urethral calculi can be treated by cystoscopic lithotripsy. It is suggested that patients with calculi should receive abdominal X-ray or ultrasound examination once every three months or half a year, so as to treat the recurrent calculi as early as possible. Drinking more water can decrease the chance of suffering from calculi.
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